Basic Account Administrations-How To-Linux OS

Add existing user called example user <Uyxx> to the wheel group

By default, all users on a Linux distribution can use the su (switch user) command to become another user during a login session. If no username is given, su defaults to becoming the super user. While on other UNIX systems, one must be in the wheel group in order to access the su command.

This tutorial will show you how to restrict the use of su command on Linux so that only users in the wheel group have access to it.

The wheel group is a special user group on Unix-like systems to restrict access to su command. The term wheel comes from the archiaic slang phrase “big wheel” which means an important and influential person.
Edit /etc/pam.d/su config file:

sudo vi /etc/pam.d/su
add the following line:

auth required /lib/security/ use_uid

auth required use_uid
Save and close the file.

Now when a user that is not in the wheel group try to use su command, he/she will get a permission denied error, even if the password is typed correctly.

If you want to add a user to the wheel group, use the following command:

sudo usermod -G wheel username
Use the id command to check if the user is in the wheel group

id username

The syntax is:

pw group mod wheel -m Uyxx
If the user named Uyxx already exists add her to the wheel group.

Add new user called sai while creating a new account

The syntax is:

pw user add sai -G wheel
The above command creates the sai primary group automatically, and add a user in the wheel group when her account is first created on a FreeBSD unix operating systems.

How do I verify new group membership on a FreeBSD?

The syntax is:

pw groupshow {GROUP-NAME-HERE}
pw groupshow wheel
pw groupshow sai
pw groupshow vivek
## Determine Group Membership Of sai and vivek Users ##
id sai
id vivek

How To Set up New SUDO User-Linux OS 

The sudo command provides a mechanism for granting administrator privileges, ordinarily only available to the root user, to normal users. This guide will show you the easiest way to create a new user with sudo access on CentOS, without having to modify your server’s sudoers file. If you want to configure sudo for an existing user, simply skip to step 3.

Steps to Create a New Sudo User
Log in to your server as the root user.

ssh root@server_ip_address
Use the adduser command to add a new user to your system.

Be sure to replace username with the user that you want to create.

adduser username
Use the passwd command to update the new user’s password.

passwd username
Set and confirm the new user’s password at the prompt. A strong password is highly recommended!

Set password prompts:
Changing password for user username.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
Use the usermod command to add the user to the wheel group.

usermod -aG wheel username
By default, on CentOS, members of the wheel group have sudo privileges.

Test sudo access on new user account

Use the su command to switch to the new user account.

su – username
As the new user, verify that you can use sudo by prepending “sudo” to the command that you want to run with superuser privileges.

sudo command_to_run
For example, you can list the contents of the /root directory, which is normally only accessible to the root user.

sudo ls -la /root
The first time you use sudo in a session, you will be prompted for the password of the user account. Enter the password to proceed.

[sudo] password for username:
If your user is in the proper group and you entered the password correctly, the command that you issued with sudo should run with root privileges.

Create New Sudo User Centos 

Add User to the Wheel Group

How To Extend a Logical Volume On Linux OS-Virtualize Environment.

To extend the logical volume on Linux OS

This article provides steps for extending the root partition residing in a logical volume created with Logical Volume Manager (LVM) in a virtual machine running Red Hat/CentOS.

Caution: Always take a complete backup of the virtual machine prior to making these changes.
1.Power off the virtual machine.
a. Click Edit the virtual machine settings and extend the virtual disk size.

b. Increase size of the disk volume
c. Power on the virtual machine.

d.Open Shell Windows 

will be using PVS, VGS and LVS 

e. Identify the device name, which is by default /dev/sda, and confirm the new size by running the command:

# fdisk -l

f.Create a new primary partition:
Run the command:

# fdisk /dev/sda (depending the results of the step 4)
Press p to print the partition table to identify the number of partitions. By default, there are 2: sda1 and sda2.
Press n to create a new primary partition.
Press p for primary.
Press 3 for the partition number, depending on the output of the partition table print.
Press Enter two times.
Press t to change the system’s partition ID.
Press 3 to select the newly creation partition.
Type 8e to change the Hex Code of the partition for Linux LVM.
Press w to write the changes to the partition table.

Restart the virtual machine.
Run this command to verify that the changes were saved to the partition table and that the new partition has an 8e type:

# fdisk -l

Run this command to convert the new partition to a physical volume:

Note: The number for the sda can change depending on system setup. Use the sda number that was created in step 5.

# pvcreate /dev/sda3

Run this command to extend the physical volume:

# vgextend VolGroup00 /dev/sda3

Note: To determine which volume group to extend, use the command vgdisplay.

Run this command to verify how many physical extents are available to the Volume Group:

# vgdisplay VolGroup00 | grep “Free”

Run the following command to extend the Logical Volume:

# lvextend -L+#G /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00

Where # is the number of Free space in GB available as per the previous command. Use the full number output from Step 10 including any decimals.

Note: To determine which logical volume to extend, use the command lvdisplay.

Run the following command to expand the ext3 filesystem online, inside of the Logical Volume:

# ext2online /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00

Use resize2fs instead of ext2online if it is not a Red Hat virtual machine.
By default, Red Hat and CentOS 7 use the XFS file system you can grow the file system by running the xfs_growfs command.

Run the following command to verify that the / filesystem has the new space available:

# df -h /
Additional Information

Extending a logical Volume in a virtual machine running RHEL and Centos OS

How to Increase the size of a Linux LVM by expanding the virtual machine disk

How to extend  and reduce LVM on Linux

Setup Flexible Disk Storage with Logical Volume Managment (LVM) in Linux

Increase virtual disk on Vmware Vsphere

VMware vRealize Operation 6.5 Installation and Configuration Guide

VMware vRealize Operation (VROPS) 6.5 Installation and Configuration Guide 

VROPS Initial Setup Video

vROPS OVA Install Flowchart–

In this section we will be covering  VROPS Installation and Configuration.

I. Requirements
minimum hardware specification 
4 vCPU
4 GB of Free Space *Depending on your organization data collection

Please visit Vmware KB for VROPS 6.5 sizing guidelines.

vROPS Standard Specs

II. Download and Registred vRops

Go to VMware vRealize site and download a 6.5 trial version of vROps.

You will require a VMware account to do this and agree to any licensing.
Download the OVA file for vROps to your local computer.

Step 1. Log into the vCenter and go file and Select —>File—>Deploy OVF Template

vrops deployment step 1

Step 2: Select the OVA file (vRealize-Operations-Appliance- Click Next

Step 3: vRealize version and the size on disk will be displayed. Click Next

Step 4: Accept the license form VMware and click Next

*scroll down and read the EULA-

Step 5:

Enter a name for the vROps appliance or keep default – vRealize Operations Manager Applicance

Step 6:

You can select different size configurations from Very Small to X-Large depending on the number of VMs that need to be monitored and data collection.   Remote Collection Standard/Large(cluster) Extra small/Large

A remote collector node is an additional cluster node that allows
vRealize Operations Manager to gather more objects into its inventory for monitoring. Unlike data nodes, remote collector nodes only include the collector role of
vRealize Operations Manager, without storing data or processing any analytics functions.

A remote collector node is usually deployed to navigate firewalls, reduce bandwidth across data centers, connect to remote data sources, or reduce the load on the vRealize Operations Manager analytics cluster.

You must have at least a master node before adding remote collector nodes.

 *in this installation step will choice small option.

Step 7: Select the required Storage   Click Next to continue.


Step 8: Disk Format

Select default  Disk Format. and click Next.

Step 10:Enter the networking details for the vROps appliance and click Next


Step 11:Confirm the settings for the appliance and click Finish to complete the deployment


Step 12: Open a console into the newly deployed appliance. You will see the vmware scren appear as the appliance writes the new configs.

Once the appliance has completed the installation you will see a similar screen to the below. Next you need to launch the web console on the IP address provided earlier as part of the deployment to configure the start-up configurations.


Step 13:
Open a web browser and if prompted to accept https site settings click through the prompts to continue. You will then be taken to a Get Started screen. If this is the first appliance with the vROps farm click New Installation, otherwise you can choose to expand a current vROps system.

Installation Options
*Express Installation.
*New Installation.
*Expand an Existing Installation

Step 14: Click Next on the Getting Started initial setup for a new cluster.

Step 15: Enter a password for the admin user and click Next

Step 16:  Here you can choice  CA signed certificate or even a third-party certificate or just use the defaults. As this is an evaluation environment I’ve selected the default certificate. Click Next.

Step 17: Enter a cluster name and also select which NTP server you want to synchronize against.

Step 18: Click Finish to finalize the initial setup.

Step 19:You will be taken to a newly designed configuration screen which shows the current cluster status. Click on Start vRealize Operations Manager to allow vRealize to come online. You can see from the State that vROps is currently Powered Off and Offline.

Step 20:

Once vROps begins the start up process a notice is received to ensure there are enough nodes in the cluster to handle the required workload. Click Yes to continue.

Step 21:

Once vROps is setup and started you will notice the state will change.

Step 22: Enter the vROps IP address or DNS name into a browser and you will receive a log in prompt.

Step 23: Once you log in you will get prompted for some more configuration settings. Select New Environment if this is a new environment or you can import data from a current vCOPS environment. Click Next.

Step 24: Accept the license and click Next

tep 25: Enter a license key if you have one or just continue with a Product Evaluation and click Next.

Step 26: Click Finish to complete the login.


VROPS 6.5 Installation


System Center 2016 Installation Guide

SCCM 2016 Configuration Installation Guide Phases
Image result
Microsoft announced the release of System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) 1602, which is the latest update to its device management product. The “1602” part of the update’s name refers to its year and month release time (as in “2016 February”), but Microsoft announced its arrival today in March 11, 2016
Phase 1  Design Recommendation and Installation Prerequisites
(coming soon)

Phase 2 | SQL Installation and Configuration
Phase 3 | SCCM 2016 Installation
Phase 4 | Application Catalog Web Service Point Installation
Phase 5 | Application Catalog Website Point Installation
Phase 6 | Asset Intelligence Synchronization Point Installation
Phase 7 | Certificate Registration Point Installation
Phase 8 | Distribution Point Installation
Phase 9 | Endpoint Protection Point Installation
Phase 10 | Enrollment Point Installation
Phase 11 | Enrollment Proxy Point Installation
Phase 12 | Fallback Status Point Installation
Phase 13 | Management Point Installation
Phase 14 | Reporting Services Point Installation
Phase 15 | Software Update Point Installation
Phase 16 | State Migration Point Installation
Phase 17 | System Health Validator Point Installation
Phase 18 | Service Connection Point Installation
Phase 19 | Boundaries Configuration
Phase 20 | Client Settings Configuration
Phase 21 | Discovery Methods Configuration
Phase 22 | Maintenance Task Configuration
Phase 23 | Backup and Restore

ESXI Host Patching Method using VMware PowerCli

ESXI Host Patching Method using VMware PowerCli

Image result for upgrade and patching via powercli

Great Video Reference

I. Intro/Scope
We will be Illustrating how to install ESXI host patch release by using VMware PowerCLI Install-VMHostPatch cmdlets and other cmdlets Maintenance Mode and Restart command to quickly patch ESXI with eixsting tool set cmdlet with in PowerCLI.


II.  Requirements

1. Download Required VMware Patches and upload to ESXI host Datastore.

a. Download ESXI Patch from Link

You can search specific Patch release for ESXI host.

b. Once Download to local machine, extract the patch file data from the downloaded zip (e.g.update-from-esxi6.0-6.0_update03 zip)
Upload the extracted content to a folder on the ESXi datastore

c. Current ESXI Host Patch Level- 

2. Make sure you have Powercli install on Local machine.
You can go to

III. Install ESXI Patch Level Steps.

1. Open PowerCli -run as administrator-

2. Run the follow Command -Connect to the Server via PowerCLI – “Connect-VIServer ipaddress or Host name

For example, Connect-VISERVER -,

a. You will prompt to input User ID – type root or Domain\user and password.

b. You will see certificate information from ESXI host.

c. Once you logged into the ESX host – You will see user ID and connection is 443.


3. Place the Standalone ESXI host into Maintenance mode

by running the follow command “Set-VMHost -VMHost ipaddress -State Maintenance”

For example, the command to Patch is – “Install-VMHostPatch -VMHost ipaddress -HostPath /vmfs/volumes/datastorename/folder/”


4. SScrollup to to where Install-VMHostPatch , you will see has completed.

5. Scrool down to command line and type the follow command to reboot ESXI Hosst
I.E Res

Reboot the Host to complete the install

*Optional- I normally run the command ping -T to the ESXI host.

once see the TTL is shows up, likely host has been boot back up …


6. Log into Vsphere Click to validate ESXI Patch has been applied. For example, you should see ESXI Update 3 Patch – 


ESXI Update 3 Patch Level- 5050593

This concludes Applying Patch Release to ESXI Host via VMware Powercli.

vSphere PowerCli CMDLETs Reference

Quickest Way to Patch an ESX/ESXi Using the Command-line

Understanding  ESXI Patches 


VMware VM- Guest OS-Windows Server 2016 Install Guide.

What is Windows Server 2016?

Windows Server 2016 is a server operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, developed concurrently with Windows 10.

The first early preview version (Technical Preview) became available on October 1, 2014

Together with the first technical preview of System Center.Unlike previous Windows Server versions, which were released simultaneously with the client operating system,

Windows Server 2016 was released on September 26, 2016, at Microsoft’s Ignite conference and became generally available on October 12, 2016.

Download the datasheet





Scope and Purpose:

We will be illustrating how to install a fresh installation of Windows Server 2016 on Vmware Vsphere Virtualization environment.

CPU, Memory and Storage Prerequisites:

A minimum of 1.4 GHz 64-bit EMT64 or AMD64 processor. Quad Core Recommended for production systems.

Disk Space:

For Core installation, a minimum Disk Space of 32 GB is required. Additional 4 GB is required for GUI installation.

Disk Space Capacity Planning:

Microsoft Support recommends 
3X times the RAM size limited up to 32 GB. Which means 96 GB (32×3 = 96 GB)

512 MB ECC supported Memory Modules
800 MB for VM Installations, post installation, reduce RAM to 512 MB.

Network Requirements:
Minimum a Gigabit Ethernet adapter with 1 Gbps throughput.

We will set the based Windows Server 2016 Based Installation with the follow Specs

  • 2 CPU
  • 6G of  RAM
  • 80 G of Disk Space”
  • 1G Network Adaptor Interface.

Guest Operating System Installation Guide – Windows Server 2016

Windows Server 2016 Download 

Windows Server 2016 Platform

Windows Server 2016 Essential Memory Limit RAM and Other Hardware Limits

General VMware Tools installation instructions,

Installation Certificate Authority on Windows Server 2016 DC Guide

Installation Certificate Authority on Windows Server 2016 DC Guide

  1. Open Server Manager – Manage – Add Roles and Features
  2. Select: Active Directory Certificate Services


3. Click Add Features and Click Next To Continue.

4. Click Next To Continue.

5. Certification Authority and  Certification Authority Web Enrollment



6. Click on  Install To Process Installation of CA Authority Feature. 

7. Click on Close Once Installation Is Complete.

8. To Configure Active Directory Certificate Services to review the installation status.


9. Select Next To Specify credential to configure role services.

10. Select Certificate Authority and Certification Authority Web Enrollment

11. Select  Enterprise and Click Next.

12. Select Root CA and Click Next. 

13. Select Create a New Private key and Click Next.

14.  Select RSA 256  – Keep  Default with 2048 key Character length

Please note SHA256 as SHA1 is deprecated 

To Upgrade your existing internal CA –

certutil-setregca\csp\CNGHashAlgorithm SHA256

*download Digicert Certutil.

15. Keep all Common Name, Distinguished name Suffix, Preview DN default,  Click Next

16.By Default Certificate is valid for 5 years , Don’t make any changes on it , Click next

17. Keep Certificate database location and log location default. and Click Next.

18. Review Configuration Summary Page  and Click Configure.

18. This should complete the CA Certificate Server. -Click Close

19. Set 443 or Secure Socket Layer protocol for Certsrv Web.

Let us see how to Request a Create a Simple Cert from Internal Certificate Authority

Now if you Open IIS Manager, you will see “CertSrv”  a Virtual Directory Created,

Use the right side column “Browse *.443(https)


20. If you don’t see a “Browse *.443(https) , It means binding is not there.

To add binding – Right Click on Default Web Site – Click on Edit Bindings


21. Click on add HTTPS – 443 – Choose the CA Cert

SSL Certificate :

Now you can see 443 in your website.


Now CA Authority Server Installation and Configuration Is complete.

22. Validate CA Certificate Home Page is working.. Go to  https://localhost/certsrv or IP/FQDN Where CA Certificate Server is installed at.

For Example:



Windows Server 2016″ Create CSR and Install SSL Certificate with DigiCert Utility.

Windows Server 2016 Upgrade Guide -How To-All About

Windows Server 2012 to 2016 Upgrade Guide -How To

Upgrade Requirments.

Upgrading previous retail versions of Windows Server to Windows Server 2012 R2

 The table below briefly summarizes which already licensed (that is, not evaluation) Windows operating systems can be upgraded to which editions of Windows Server 2012 R2.

Note the following general guidelines for supported paths:

  • In-place upgrades from 32-bit to 64-bit architectures are not supported. All editions of Windows Server 2012 R2 are 64-bit only.
  • In-place upgrades from one language to another are not supported.
  • In-place upgrades from one build type (fre to chk, for example) are not supported.
  • If the server is a domain controller, see for important information.
  • Upgrades from pre-release versions of Windows Server 2012 R2 are not supported. Perform a clean installation to Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • Upgrades that switch from a Server Core installation to the Server with a GUI mode of Windows Server 2012 R2 in one step (and vice versa) are not supported. However, after upgrade is complete, Windows Server 2012 R2 allows you to switch freely between Server Core and Server with a GUI modes. For more information about these installation options, how to convert between them, and how to use the new Minimal Server Interface and Features on Demand, see

If you do not see your current version in the left column, upgrading to this release of Windows Server 2012 R2 is not supported.

If you see more than one edition in the right column, upgrade to either edition from the same starting version is supported.

Upgrade Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016

1. Download Windows 2016 ISO from Microsoft site

2. Mount Windows Server 2016 ISO on Windows 2012 R2 Domain controller.

3. Log in to Windows Server 2012 and plug the media file (DVD, Flash memory, etc) to the server. Open the file explorer and double click on the DVD Drive to run the Windows Server 2016 setup.

This PC

4. Select Download & install updates to let the installation go on smoothly and mark, I want to help make installation of Windows better. Click on Next button.

Install Updates

5. Select an edition of Windows Server 2016 which meets your organization requirements. Also, in the future you may enlarge your network and need more roles and license support for your network computers. Click on Next button.

Windows Server 2016 editions

6. Read the notes and license terms. If you don’t like, clicking on Decline button, you can go back. If you agree, click on Accept button.

Accept the term

7. If you choose the edition same as the edition you used currently, you can keep your apps and files. As mentioned before if you don’t choose the right edition you can’t keep your apps and files. Select Keep personal files and apps if you’re using the same edition or select Nothing to erase everything. Then click on Next button.

Choose what to keep

Installing Windows Server 2016

7. The Windows Server automatically checks your system and finds if your server is compatable, so just click on Install button to start the installation.

Install Windows Server

Be patient It will take some time to install Windows server 2016 on your existing system. there will be a few restarts until the installation completes.

Installation process

7. Specify Keyboard setting. Keep Default for English.  Click on Next to continue

Region, preferred language, keyboard

8. Read the ELA license terms  on Accept button.

Accept License terms

9. The user will default to Administrator. You will be required to set a  complex password (a password composed of lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers and symbols) and reenter you password. Then click on Finish to conntinue. 


10.  Click on  Ctrl+Alt+Del buttons and sign in with the password you had entered before in previous section.

Press Ctrl+Alt+Del buttons

Welcome to Windows server 2016. You have upgraded Windows server 2012 to Windows server 2016.There are a lot the latest improvements in Windows 2016 Server Release.


BTHHD -Upgrade Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows 2016 Upgrade Guide.


NLB Solution Windows 2016 Step by Step Guide. 

Windows 2016 Server Upgrade

Server role upgrade and migration matrix for Windows Server 2016:

Windows Server 2016 and Microsoft Server Application Compatibility:

Windows 2016 Download Link

vSphere Update Manager 6.0 Patch and Upgrade Management Guide

vSphere Update Manager 6.0 Patch and Upgrade Management Guide

VUM Getting Started
vSphere Update Manager(VUM) is a utility that oversees the installation of updates for existing installations of VMware ESX Server and guest operating systems. Update Manager tracks vulnerabilities within the virtual infrastructure and automatically applies user-defined patches to eliminate those vulnerabilities.

Why leverage vSphere Update Manager in Vsphere environment?

  • Facilitate upgrades and patching of ESX Server installations, guest operating systems,
    and application 
  • Helps establish a consistently secure and patched environment.
  • Out of the box single Vsphere Patching Solution 

Assumptions-Prerequisite Requirements.
• vSphere vCenter 5.5, 6.0, or 6.5 has been installed.
• vSphere Update Manager(VUM) 5.5, 6.0 or 6.5 has been installed.
• vSphere Update Manager(VUM) Client installed.

Please reference vCenter and VUM installation guide sections if none of the 1.2 has been completed.

Download VMware Update Manager Patch Managment Guide Below.

Download ESXI Patch

Search for ESXI Patch Level.

Great Video Tutorial Host Upgrade Using Update Manager.

Using Powercli to Upgrade ESXI Host to ESXI 6.0.0 Update 2


 Updating an ESXi/ESX host using VMware vCenter Update Manager 4x,5x,and 6x. 

 VUM Administration Guide.

ESXI Patching via PowerCli

ESX 6.0.0 Update 2 Download

vCenter 6.5 Installation Guide

What is Vcenter?

VCenter Server provides centralized management and operation, resource provisioning and performance evaluation of virtual machines residing on a distributed virtual data center.
VMware VCentre Server is designed primarily for VSphere,



1.1      Target Audience/Purpose/Scope:

This document is targeted installation of  Vmware Vsphere 6.0 vCenter Server.

The purpose and scope in implementing vCenter 6.0 Server to leverage

  • Storage VMotion,
  • VMware High Availability (VMHA),
  • VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS).
  • Deploy from Template
  • Clone VM to Template
  • Systems Prep Virtual Machine Provisioning. .


1.2 Prerequisite requirements

  1. Download VMware-VIMSetup-all-6.5.0-4602587 from VMware download(Click On Link)
  2. Windows 2012 R2 OS
  3. Min CPU, RAM and Disk requirements
    CPU x 2, RAM 2G to 8G, and Disk 50 G
  4. vCenter Host DNS -FQDN and AD Membership Registered to both AD and DNS. i.e

Vcenter 6.5 Installation Guide on Windows Server 2012 R2

Click Here Download Guide.

Video Tutorials

VMware vSphere Vcenter 6.5 on Windows 2012 R2- Installation
Coming Soon!!!!

VMware vSphere VCSA 6.5 Installation
Coming Soon!!!!


1.3 Reference:

New in Vsphere 6.5 –Vcenter server

VMware vSphere 6.5 Documentation

 Installing vCenter Server 6.5 on a Windows Server 2012 R2 system

Stopping, starting, or restarting VMware vCenter Server 6.x services